Using only data available for calculating the RRI, it is not possible to determine which or how much each of these factors contribute to racial disparities reflected by the RRIs at the arrest decision point. It is also important to study, through the use of additional quantitative and qualitative data, the factors and mechanisms that contribute to the observed disproportion at particular contact points within the juvenile justice system. Moreover, the RRI … Divide the number of referrals of white youth by the white population. For example, DMC Relative Rate Index Matrices could be developed separately for various types of juvenile offenders (e.g., males and females, young and old) or various locations (e.g., urban, suburban, and rural areas) to see if the disparity patterns are linked more strongly to some person offense cases than to others. For additional background on the calculation method, see this excerpt from a technical assistance manual developed by … 9) OJJDP (2014). Source: OJJDP Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, 2008. This RRI of 7.0 means that the minority youth arrest rate was about 600% greater than the white arrest rate. If the processing rate for one race/ethnic category of youth is identical to that of another, the relative rate index is a "1." Due to the presence of so few Caucasian juveniles in the juvenile justice system in the District of Columbia, it is impossible to employ statistical procedures to understand DMC using the RRI method. Advocates for Children and Youth. Note that for RRI values less than 1, the data is interpreted as 1 divided by the RRI. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is a leader in efforts to reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in the Nation's juvenile justice system. Note: Detained and committed. Defines the rate for non-White groups in terms of the rate for the White group. The relative rate index (RRI)represents the relative volume of minority juveniles to the volume of majority juveniles (adjusted by population) at stages in the juvenile justice system. In all, in 2010 few decisions made in the juvenile justice system processing of robbery offense cases were racially disparate. In this instance the index is (2009). As outlined by the OJJDP DMC Reduction Model, the identification of disproportionality occurs in four steps: defining the contact points, identifying data sources, collecting data and calculating and interpreting Relative Rate Index (RRI) values. Once adjudicated, the RRIs indicate that minority youth charged with a robbery offense were less likely to be placed out of the home than white youth, and equally likely to be placed on probation as were adjudicated white youth in 2010. It is a ratio of the rate of minority juvenile interaction with the justice system at a particular contact point as compared with white juveniles’ contact. An index value of 1.00 would indicate that the rates were essentially the same. The RRI for referral to juvenile court for minority youth overall indicates the level of racial disparity in the juvenile justice system for minorities increased slightly as a result of this decision. OJJDP’s guidelines state that when data are missing for analysis, “the rate [RRI] will be calculated on the 2 U.S. Department of Justice. This RRI of 7.0 means that the minority youth arrest rate was about 600% greater than the white arrest rate. With this background, we can review the set of Relative Rate Indices (RRI) that capture disproportionate minority contact (DMC) in the juvenile justice system’s handling of robbery cases in 2010. Information gathered from the JCMSC is used to create the Relative Rate Index (RRI) Tables below. Using the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) criteria, Oregon Relative Rate Index (RRI) values for referrals of both African American and Native American youth are the areas that rise to priority levels using all of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP… Data Items Rate of Occurrence - White Youth Rate of Occurrence - Minority Youth Relative Rate Index 1. The "relative rate index" (RRI) is OJJDP's identified method to compare rates. The relative rate index (RRI)represents the relative volume of minority juveniles to the volume of majority juveniles (adjusted by population) at stages in the juvenile justice system. Virginia has determined that DMC does exist among its juvenile justice population. Population at risk (age YY through XX ) 2. Definitions: Relative Rate Index (RRI) compares the arrest rate for a particular racial group with the total arrest rate for all juveniles. For example, minority youth may commit robbery offenses at a greater rate than white youth, with the greater arrest rate simply reflecting these behavioral differences. online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. RRIs are designed to be comparable across sites, no matter the size of the jurisdiction, similar to the way percentages are used. Which county is performing better on reducing teen dropouts? Once petitioned, minority youth charged with a robbery offense in 2010 were somewhat less likely to be adjudicated than were white youth. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), “At its simplest, the RRI is a means of comparing the rates of juvenile justice contact experienced by different groups of youth.” How are three neighboring counties in Texas doing on reducing teen births across three age categories. Download interpretations for all offenses [PDF]. Some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices equal to 1.0) neither increase nor decrease disparity but maintain the level of disparity that resulted from prior decisions. Instances of contact with minority juveniles 4. Some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices greater than 1.0) increase disparity in the system. OJJDP Relative Rate Index (RRI) to measure DMC decision points beyond the arrest stage. What is an RRI? The decision point that contributed the most to the overall level of disparity in the system is the point of arrest. Each relative rate is dependent on the decision point that comes directly before what is being measured. In 24 states, less than 1 percent of youth are American Indian. Definitions: The Relative Rate Index compares the arrest rate for White youth with the arrest rate for African-American youth. The matrices present major decision points and compare processing “rates” by race and ethnicity through the relative rate index. Cases Involving Secure Detention 13.11 17.23 1.31 6. The relative rate index is a commonly used metric nationally. Due to the presence of so few Caucasian juveniles in the juvenile justice system in the District of Columbia, it is impossible to employ statistical procedures to understand DMC using the RRI method. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a measure of the rate of racial disparity between white youth and youth of color at a particular stage in the system. Where does my state rank on premature births? Admissions of Youth <18 to Adult Prison, 2003 White African The RRI provides a single index number that indicates whether there is disparity. For example, an RRI of 2.0 means that members of that group are two times more likely to be arrested than the total population. ! plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . Note: Detained and committed. Instances of contact with Caucasian juveniles 2. The RRI for the detention decision indicates that minority youth were as likely to be securely detained as were white youth in 2010. If the processing rate for one race/ethnic category of youth is … Population of at-risk Caucasian youths 3. plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . Note that for RRI values less than 1, the data is interpreted as 1 divided by the RRI. The OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book added new features to its National Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Databook This application presents the national DMC data for the juvenile justice system and their Relative Rate Index Matrices that quantify levels of racial disparity introduced at various decision points within the system. Implementing Relative Rate Index Calculation. The cumulative disparity experienced by minority youth at any decision point in the juvenile justice system is a combination of the disparities introduced at prior decision points and that added by the decision point of interest. How to Calculate the RRI? The petitioning decision maintained the level of racial disparity in the processing of robbery offense cases in 2010. In addition, considerations of the magnitude of the various RRIs highlight the decision points where the contribution to disparity was greatest in the processing of robbery cases in 2010 (e.g., arrest and, to a lesser degree, court referral) and can help to prioritize the points at which further study is most warranted. There are several possible reasons for these racial disparities at the point of arrest. State-by-state analysis of American Indian youth is hampered by their small number and attendant small percentage of the population in many states. “-” = Numbers too low to calculate rates. Roughly 90 percent of American Indian juveniles live in just 26 states. One of the many possible reasons for this pattern could be that the screening decision used to petition these cases may have sent a greater proportion of legally weak or less serious cases of minority youth to an adjudication hearing and these cases were screened out at the adjudication decision. The RRI is represented as a number, and is calculated for each minority group (Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, Black and Hispanic). The relative rate index is a measure of disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. Relative Rate Index and how it is used in Multnomah County's Juvenile System. Footnotes: Admissions of Youth <18 to Adult Prison, 2003 White African Data Source: The funds also help states address the core requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act: deinstitutionalization of status offenders, separation of juvenil… Juvenile Violent Crime Index Arrest Rates, 2011 Juvenile Violent Crime Index Arrest Rates, 2012 0 to 75 75 to 150 150 to 250 250 or above Data not available Violent Crime Index arrests per 100,000 juveniles ages 10–17, 2011 0 to 75 (7 states) 75 to 150 (18 states) 150 to 250 (16 states) 250 or above (8 states) Data not available (2 states) Advocates for Children and Youth builds a strong Maryland by advancing policies and programs to ensure children and families of every race, ethnicity, and place of birth achieve their full potential. To calculate the RRI, the arrest rate for African-American youth is divided by the arrest rate for White youth. The Relative Rate Index of the arrest decision point was significantly greater than 1.0 when comparing the overall minority arrest rate to that of white youth. To calculate the RRI, the arrest rate for African-American youth is divided by the arrest rate for White youth. However, the field has moved beyond looking at racial and ethnic disparities solely from the perspective of overrepresentation of youth of color relative to White youth. The "relative rate index" (RRI) is OJJDP's identified method to compare rates. More from the State Relations … Nationwide, American Indian y… Appendices However, this racial disparity may not be the result of racial bias in the decisionmaking process. The relative rate index (RRI) is a coefficient calculated using four numbers: 1. The arrest rate is calculated by dividing the number of arrests for each group by the population of that group. Please note, there is no national data collection specifically designed to monitor vital signs on racial and ethnic fairness at the state-level. The arrest RRI for American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN) youth (0.6) and Asian, Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander (AHPI) youth (0.5) indicates that their arrest rate was far below that of white youth, signifying an arrest disparity for these two groups that brings a disproportionately smaller number of AIAN and AHPI youth into the juvenile justice system for a robbery offense. “-” = Numbers too low to calculate rates. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), “At its simplest, the RRI is a means of … The RRI for the adjudication decision indicates that these decisions actually helped somewhat to reduce the overall level of racial disparity in the processing of robbery offense referrals by the system given that the RRI for minority youth was less than 1.0. Whenever groups are treated equally – both will have an RRI equal to “1.” This is true even when one group of youth is larger than the other group of youth. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) developed the relative rate index (RRI) to measure and monitor DMC at each of nine contact points in the juvenile justice system: 1) arrest; 2) referral to court; 3) diversion (includes informal probation); 4) secure detention; 5) charges (petition) filed; 6) found delinquent; 7) placed on formal probation; 8) placed in secure correctional facility; and … Example: RRIs for Referrals to Juvenile Court (2012 Missouri Data) 1. online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. Finally, the RRI for the waiver decision indicates that, overall, little racial disparity was found at this decision point in 2010; minority youth charged with a robbery offense were equally likely to be judicially waived to criminal court as white youth. Funding through OJJDP's Formula Grants program (Title II) helps states address juvenile delinquency and supports improvements to the juvenile justice system. Are there more black or hispanic children in poverty in my county? Use this view if you have questions like: Definitions: This pattern held for black youth whose RRI was also 1.1. Cases Diverted 3.70 1.36 0.37 5. The Relative Rate Index is a means of comparing the rates of juvenile justice contact. For additional background on the calculation method, see this excerpt from a technical assistance manual developed by … It may also be that even when minority and white youth commit crimes at similar rates, the robbery crimes of minority youth are more likely to be reported to law enforcement, also resulting in a higher arrest rate. 5The national RRI of 0.9 reported in the National DMC Databook (http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dmcdb/index.html), shows that with the exception of Asian, Hawaiian, or Paciic Islander youth, minority youth are not being diverted or probated relative to white youth. Source: OJJDP Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, 2008. Once again, the disparities added at the petitioning decision point could be the result of several factors (e.g., differential severities in the nature of their crimes, differences in the youths’ prior delinquency histories, and/or decisionmaker bias); only further research can establish the most likely causes. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is one indicator of racial and ethnic disparities. Or it could be that even when both groups commit crimes at similar rates and these crimes are equally likely to be reported to law enforcement, law enforcement is more likely to arrest minority youth for their robbery offenses. Once again, there could be many reasons for these racially-disparate decisions, factors that only additional research can identify. Ultimately, state and local users of the matrices will need to examine the rates of each racial/ethnic group and consider what an "acceptable rate" is in addition to the relative rate. An OJJDP Compliance Monitor explains the Juvenile Justice Reform Act mandate that states must have an "effective" system of monitoring compliance with the core requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency … And some decisions (those with Relative Rate Indices less than 1.0) reduce the level of disparity in the system. The Relative Rate Index of the arrest decision point was significantly greater than 1.0 when comparing the overall minority arrest rate to that of white youth. Definitions: Relative Rate Index (RRI) compares the arrest rate for a particular racial group with the total arrest rate for all juveniles. Again, many factors could have lead to this racially-disparate decision. The arrest rate is calculated by dividing the number of arrests for each group by the population of that group. The Relative Rate Index compares the arrest rate for White youth with the arrest rate for African-American youth. comparison of the two rates provides a relative rate index or RRI. This method compares the (rate) of activity for each major stage of the juvenile justice system of minority youth compared to white (majority) youth . For example, an RRI of 2.0 means that members of that group are two times more likely to be arrested than the total population. comparison of the data captured by using national data collections to calculate the relative rate index (RRI) and the disproportionate representation index (DRI). The Relative Rate Index Method (RRI) What does this mean? Refer to Juvenile Court 0.00 0.00 --4. The Relative Rate Index (RRI), a formula that OJJDP uses, is one method of tracking disparity. Arrest data from Maryland State Police. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a helpful way to compare the experiences of different groups of youth within the juvenile justice system. rates with the juvenile justice system, at which decision points, to what extent, and for which racial or ethnic groups. Minority youth referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense were equally likely to be processed formally (but less likely to be diverted from the formal court process) than were white youth referred to juvenile court. The arrest decision’s RRI is even greater (9.8) when comparing black youth to white youth. Information gathered from the JCMSC is used to create the Relative Rate Index (RRI) Tables below. The court referral RRI for AIAN and AHPI youth (1.4 for each) indicates that this decision point brings a disproportionate number of these youth into the juvenile justice system. Whenever groups are treated equally – both will have an RRI equal to “1.” OJJDP Relative Rate Index (RRI) to measure DMC decision points beyond the arrest stage. DEFINITIONS & SOURCES. In 2010 minority youth (RRI of 1.1) were somewhat more likely to be referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense than were white youth. 2 The use of the relative rate index is described in more detail later. 5The national RRI of 0.9 reported in the National DMC Databook (http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dmcdb/index.html), shows that with the exception of Asian, Hawaiian, or Paciic Islander youth, minority youth are not being diverted or probated relative to white youth. 5 OJJDP-2015-3689 OJJDP FY 2015 Title II Formula Grants Program ... OJJDP is committed to continued evolution of our nation’s juvenile justice system to a Appendices Studying the set of Relative Rate Indices for a specific decision process enables us to see the unique contributions made by each decision point to the overall disparity in the system. She is an expert in evidenced-based programs, and serves as the officer in charge for OJJDP’s Model Programs Guide and Program Manager for NIJ’s CrimeSolutions.gov. Juvenile Arrests 78.18 318.11 4.07 3. The data provided in the graphs below are specific to Shelby County and the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County (JCMSC) for 2019. Implementing the Relative Rate Index Calculation: A Step-by-Step Approach to Identifying Disproportionate Minority Contact within the Juvenile Justice System. The materials that follow are intended to provide step by step instructions for completing the initial identification stage for examining Disproportionate Minority Contact within a jurisdiction. online compliance reporting tool, separately from this application and no later than April 2, 2018. Once states and localities have collected and utilized the resources have been added to the SBB: A new Data Snapshot draws on national arrest estimates to document declines in juvenile arrests through 2019.; A new FAQ showing high school dropout rates by state has been added to the education section under the Population Characteristics. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) developed the relative rate index (RRI) to measure and monitor DMC at each of nine contact points in the juvenile justice system: 1) arrest; 2) referral to court; 3) diversion (includes informal probation); 4) secure detention; 5) charges (petition) filed; 6) found delinquent; 7) placed on formal probation; 8) placed in secure correctional facility; and … Only more targeted research can uncover the most likely causes. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is used by OJJDP to compare level of contact with the juvenile justice system as experienced by different groups of youth (OJJDP, n.d.b). The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is used by OJJDP to compare level of contact with the juvenile justice system as experienced by different groups of youth (OJJDP, n.d.b). Population data from Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) , Easy Access to Juvenile Populations: 1990-2018. Appendices ; A new Data Snapshot draws on data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to document the trends … 5633, Section 223(a) .....58 . thousand (1,000) youth for Black or African-American youth), the relative rate index (318.11 divided by 78.18 = 4.07) and an indication whether that index is statistically significant (i.e., could it have occurred by a random process). Data below shows the trend data for the District of Columbia. Appendix I: Sample Relative Rate Index Analysis and Tracking Sheet .....57 Appendix J: 42 U.S.C. Shelby County's Juvenile Court Dashboard. The Relative Rate Index (RRI) is a helpful way to compare the experiences of different groups of youth within the juvenile justice system. Relative Rate Index ... • OJJDP Model Programs Guide community indicators • Self-report data on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use • Community-level income data • Community-level unemployment rate • Community-level demographic data • Area-level school attendance data . plans, compliance and Relative Rate Index (RRI) data, and supporting documentation for the period October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, electronically to OJJDP’s . She authored two chapters of the OJJDP DMC Technical Assistance Manual and worked with Feyerherm to design the relative rate index (RRI) reporting system for state DMC coordinators. This pattern held for black youth, but not for AIAN and AHPI youth; the detention RRI for AIAN and AHPI youth was 0.7 in 2010, indicating that AIAN and AHPI youth referred to juvenile court for a robbery offense were less likely to be securely detained than were white youth. 2 The RRI provides a single index number that indicates the extent to which the volume of that form of . 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